S07 Rash generalized (ICD-10:R21)

February 28, 2024

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Generalized rash refers to a skin condition characterized by the presence of a rash that affects multiple areas of the body. It can be caused by various factors, including allergies, infections, autoimmune disorders, and medication reactions. The aim of this guide is to provide a comprehensive approach to diagnosing and managing generalized rash.


– ICPC-2 Code: S07 Rash generalized
– ICD-10 Code: R21 Rash and other nonspecific skin eruption


  • Redness and inflammation of the skin
  • Itching or burning sensation
  • Presence of small bumps or blisters
  • Dry or scaly skin
  • Peeling or flaking of the skin


  • Allergic reactions to certain substances, such as medications, cosmetics, or detergents
  • Infections, including viral, bacterial, or fungal infections
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or psoriasis
  • Contact dermatitis from exposure to irritants or allergens
  • Medication reactions

Diagnostic Steps

Medical History

  • Gather information about the onset and duration of the rash
  • Identify any triggers or exposures that may have caused the rash
  • Determine if the rash is associated with any other symptoms, such as fever or joint pain
  • Assess the patient’s medical history for any underlying conditions or allergies

Physical Examination

  • Inspect the rash for its appearance, distribution, and severity
  • Palpate the skin to assess for texture, temperature, and tenderness
  • Check for any signs of infection, such as pus or crusting
  • Examine other areas of the body for additional rashes or lesions

Determine Severity

  • Mild: Limited rash with minimal symptoms, no systemic involvement
  • Moderate: Widespread rash with moderate symptoms, possible systemic involvement
  • Severe: Extensive rash with severe symptoms, systemic involvement

Laboratory Tests

  • Complete blood count (CBC) to assess for signs of infection or inflammation
  • Skin biopsy to determine the underlying cause of the rash
  • Allergy testing to identify any specific allergens triggering the rash
  • Viral or bacterial cultures to detect the presence of an infection

Diagnostic Imaging

  • No diagnostic imaging is typically necessary for the diagnosis of generalized rash.

Other Tests

  • Patch testing to identify specific allergens causing contact dermatitis
  • Autoimmune panel to evaluate for underlying autoimmune disorders
  • Skin scraping or fungal culture to rule out fungal infections

Follow-up and Patient Education

  • Schedule a follow-up appointment to monitor the progress of the rash and adjust treatment if necessary
  • Provide education on proper skin care, including gentle cleansing and moisturizing
  • Advise the patient to avoid known triggers or irritants that may worsen the rash
  • Discuss the importance of regular follow-up and reporting any worsening symptoms

Possible Interventions

Traditional Interventions


Top 5 drugs for generalized rash:

  1. Antihistamines (e.g., Cetirizine, Loratadine, Diphenhydramine):
    • Cost: Generic versions can be $3-$20/month.
    • Contraindications: Glaucoma, urinary retention, severe liver disease.
    • Side effects: Drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness.
    • Severe side effects: Severe allergic reactions, difficulty breathing.
    • Drug interactions: Sedatives, alcohol, other antihistamines.
    • Warning: May cause drowsiness, avoid driving or operating machinery.
  2. Topical corticosteroids (e.g., Hydrocortisone, Betamethasone):
    • Cost: Generic versions can be $5-$30/tube.
    • Contraindications: Skin infections, open wounds.
    • Side effects: Skin thinning, discoloration, burning or stinging sensation.
    • Severe side effects: Allergic reactions, adrenal suppression (with prolonged use).
    • Drug interactions: None significant.
    • Warning: Limit use to the affected area and avoid prolonged use.
  3. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., Tacrolimus, Pimecrolimus):
    • Cost: Generic versions can be $50-$100/tube.
    • Contraindications: Skin infections, open wounds.
    • Side effects: Burning or stinging sensation, itching.
    • Severe side effects: None significant.
    • Drug interactions: None significant.
    • Warning: Limit use to the affected area and avoid prolonged use.
  4. Oral corticosteroids (e.g., Prednisone, Methylprednisolone):
    • Cost: Generic versions can be $5-$20/month.
    • Contraindications: Active infections, uncontrolled diabetes.
    • Side effects: Increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes.
    • Severe side effects: Increased risk of infections, osteoporosis (with prolonged use).
    • Drug interactions: NSAIDs, anticoagulants.
    • Warning: Should be tapered off gradually to avoid adrenal insufficiency.
  5. Immunosuppressants (e.g., Methotrexate, Azathioprine):
    • Cost: Generic versions can be $10-$50/month.
    • Contraindications: Active infections, pregnancy.
    • Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, liver toxicity.
    • Severe side effects: Increased risk of infections, bone marrow suppression.
    • Drug interactions: NSAIDs, other immunosuppressants.
    • Warning: Regular monitoring of liver function and blood counts is required.

Alternative Drugs:

  • Antibiotics (e.g., Doxycycline, Azithromycin): Used for bacterial infections causing the rash.
  • Antifungals (e.g., Clotrimazole, Terbinafine): Used for fungal infections causing the rash.
  • Systemic corticosteroids (e.g., Prednisone, Methylprednisolone): Used for severe or refractory cases of generalized rash.

Surgical Procedures:

  • No surgical procedures are typically necessary for the treatment of generalized rash.

Alternative Interventions

  • Acupuncture: May help alleviate symptoms and promote overall well-being. Cost: $60-$120 per session.
  • Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as chamomile or calendula, may have anti-inflammatory properties. Cost: Varies depending on the specific herb or preparation.
  • Aloe vera gel: Applied topically to soothe and moisturize the skin. Cost: $5-$15 per bottle.
  • Oatmeal baths: Relieve itching and inflammation. Cost: $10-$20 per box of colloidal oatmeal.
  • Cool compresses: Provide temporary relief from itching and inflammation. Cost: Minimal.

Lifestyle Interventions

  • Avoid known triggers or irritants, such as certain fabrics or harsh soaps.
  • Keep the skin clean and moisturized.
  • Use mild, fragrance-free skincare products.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing made of breathable fabrics.
  • Apply sunscreen to protect the skin from sun exposure.
  • Practice stress management techniques, such as meditation or yoga.

Mirari Cold Plasma Alternative Intervention

Understanding Mirari Cold Plasma

  • Safe and Non-Invasive Treatment: Mirari Cold Plasma is a safe and non-invasive treatment option for various skin conditions. It does not require incisions, minimizing the risk of scarring, bleeding, or tissue damage.
  • Efficient Extraction of Foreign Bodies: Mirari Cold Plasma facilitates the removal of foreign bodies from the skin by degrading and dissociating organic matter, allowing easier access and extraction.
  • Pain Reduction and Comfort: Mirari Cold Plasma has a local analgesic effect, providing pain relief during the treatment, making it more comfortable for the patient.
  • Reduced Risk of Infection: Mirari Cold Plasma has antimicrobial properties, effectively killing bacteria and reducing the risk of infection.
  • Accelerated Healing and Minimal Scarring: Mirari Cold Plasma stimulates wound healing and tissue regeneration, reducing healing time and minimizing the formation of scars.

Mirari Cold Plasma Prescription

Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 10 (Dermatitis/Fungus)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 10 (Dermatitis/Fungus)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Mode setting: 10 (Dermatitis/Fungus)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Morning: 45 minutes approx. $7.50 USD,
Evening: 45 minutes approx. $7.50 USD
Morning: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Lunch: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Evening: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Morning: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Lunch: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Evening: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Usual treatment for 7-60 days approx. $105 USD  $900 USDUsual treatment for 6-8 weeks approx. $1,890 USD – $2,520 USD
Usual treatment for 3-6 months approx. $4,050 USD – $8,100 USD
Location note miraridoctor 1
  • Localized (0)
  • Sacrum (1)
  • Prostate & Uterus (2)
  • Kidney, Liver & Spleen (3)
  • Heart, Bile & Pancreas (4)
  • Lungs (5)
  • Throat, Lymphatic & Thyroid (6)
  • Neuro system & ENT (7)

Use the Mirari Cold Plasma device to treat Rash generalized effectively.


Step 1: Cleanse the Skin

  • Start by cleaning the affected area of the skin with a gentle cleanser or mild soap and water. Gently pat the area dry with a clean towel.

Step 2: Prepare the Mirari Cold Plasma device

  • Ensure that the Mirari Cold Plasma device is fully charged or has fresh batteries as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Make sure the device is clean and in good working condition.
  • Switch on the Mirari device using the power button or by following the specific instructions provided with the device.
  • Some Mirari devices may have adjustable settings for intensity or treatment duration. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to select the appropriate settings based on your needs and the recommended guidelines.

Step 3: Apply the Device

  • Place the Mirari device in direct contact with the affected area of the skin. Gently glide or hold the device over the skin surface, ensuring even coverage of the area experiencing.
  • Slowly move the Mirari device in a circular motion or follow a specific pattern as indicated in the user manual. This helps ensure thorough treatment coverage.

Step 4: Monitor and Assess:

  • Keep track of your progress and evaluate the effectiveness of the Mirari device in managing your Rash generalized. If you have any concerns or notice any adverse reactions, consult with your health care professional.


This guide is for informational purposes only and should not replace the advice of a medical professional. Always consult with your healthcare provider or a qualified medical professional for personal advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Do not solely rely on the information presented here for decisions about your health. Use of this information is at your own risk. The authors of this guide, nor any associated entities or platforms, are not responsible for any potential adverse effects or outcomes based on the content.

Mirari Cold Plasma System Disclaimer

  • Purpose: The Mirari Cold Plasma System is a Class 2 medical device designed for use by trained healthcare professionals. It is registered for use in Thailand and Vietnam. It is not intended for use outside of these locations.
  • Informational Use: The content and information provided with the device are for educational and informational purposes only. They are not a substitute for professional medical advice or care.
  • Variable Outcomes: While the device is approved for specific uses, individual outcomes can differ. We do not assert or guarantee specific medical outcomes.
  • Consultation: Prior to utilizing the device or making decisions based on its content, it is essential to consult with a Certified Mirari Tele-Therapist and your medical healthcare provider regarding specific protocols.
  • Liability: By using this device, users are acknowledging and accepting all potential risks. Neither the manufacturer nor the distributor will be held accountable for any adverse reactions, injuries, or damages stemming from its use.
  • Geographical Availability: This device has received approval for designated purposes by the Thai and Vietnam FDA. As of now, outside of Thailand and Vietnam, the Mirari Cold Plasma System is not available for purchase or use.
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