A10 Bleeding/haemorrhage NOS (ICD-10:R58)

January 23, 2024

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Introduction

Bleeding or hemorrhage NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) refers to uncontrolled or excessive bleeding that occurs without a specific cause or location. It can be a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this guide is to provide healthcare professionals with a comprehensive overview of the diagnostic steps, possible interventions, and patient education for bleeding/haemorrhage NOS.

Codes

– ICPC-2 Code: A10 Bleeding/haemorrhage NOS
– ICD-10 Code: R58 Haemorrhage, not elsewhere classified

Symptoms

  • Unexplained or excessive bleeding
  • Easy bruising
  • Prolonged bleeding from minor cuts or injuries
  • Frequent nosebleeds
  • Blood in urine or stool
  • Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding

Causes

  • Blood clotting disorders
  • Platelet disorders
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Medications that affect blood clotting
  • Inherited bleeding disorders

Diagnostic Steps

Medical History

  • Gather information about the patient’s medical history, including any previous bleeding episodes, family history of bleeding disorders, and current medications.
  • Ask about symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, and heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • Inquire about any recent surgeries or procedures that may have contributed to the bleeding.

Physical Examination

  • Perform a thorough physical examination, paying attention to signs of bleeding such as bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and mucosal bleeding.
  • Check vital signs, including blood pressure and heart rate, to assess for signs of shock or hypovolemia.

Laboratory Tests

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): Assess for abnormalities in red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Coagulation Profile: Measure clotting factors, such as prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and international normalized ratio (INR).
  • Bleeding Time: Evaluate the time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding.
  • Liver Function Tests: Assess liver function, as liver disease can contribute to bleeding disorders.
  • Kidney Function Tests: Evaluate kidney function, as kidney disease can affect blood clotting.

Diagnostic Imaging

  • Ultrasound: Assess for internal bleeding or abnormalities in organs that may be causing bleeding.
  • CT Scan: Provide detailed images of the body to identify the source of bleeding.
  • MRI: Evaluate specific areas of concern, such as the brain or abdomen, for bleeding or abnormalities.

Other Tests

  • Genetic Testing: Determine if there is an inherited bleeding disorder present.
  • Endoscopy: Visualize the gastrointestinal tract to identify any sources of bleeding.
  • Bone Marrow Biopsy: Assess for abnormalities in the bone marrow that may be causing bleeding disorders.

Follow-up and Patient Education

  • Schedule follow-up appointments to monitor the patient’s progress and adjust treatment as needed.
  • Educate the patient about their condition, including the potential causes and the importance of adherence to treatment plans.
  • Provide information on lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding activities that may increase the risk of bleeding and maintaining a healthy diet.

Possible Interventions

Traditional Interventions

Medications:

Top 5 drugs for Bleeding/Haemorrhage NOS:

  1. Tranexamic Acid:
    • Cost: $10-$50 for a 1g vial.
    • Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to tranexamic acid, active thromboembolic disease.
    • Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
    • Severe side effects: Allergic reactions, seizures.
    • Drug interactions: Anticoagulants, hormonal contraceptives.
    • Warning: Use with caution in patients with a history of renal impairment.
  2. Desmopressin:
    • Cost: $10-$50 for a 4mcg/mL nasal spray.
    • Contraindications: Hyponatremia, known or suspected cranial diabetes insipidus.
    • Side effects: Headache, nasal congestion.
    • Severe side effects: Seizures, hyponatremia.
    • Drug interactions: Antidiuretic medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    • Warning: Monitor sodium levels during treatment.
  3. Recombinant Factor VIIa:
    • Cost: $5,000-$10,000 per vial.
    • Contraindications: Known hypersensitivity to recombinant factor VIIa, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
    • Side effects: Headache, fever, injection site reactions.
    • Severe side effects: Thromboembolic events, hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Drug interactions: Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents.
    • Warning: Use with caution in patients with a history of thromboembolic events.
  4. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate:
    • Cost: $1,000-$2,000 per vial.
    • Contraindications: Known hypersensitivity to prothrombin complex concentrate, DIC.
    • Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, flushing.
    • Severe side effects: Thromboembolic events, hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Drug interactions: Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents.
    • Warning: Monitor for signs of thromboembolic events during treatment.
  5. Fresh Frozen Plasma:
    • Cost: $100-$500 per unit.
    • Contraindications: Known hypersensitivity to plasma, volume overload.
    • Side effects: Transfusion reactions, fluid overload.
    • Severe side effects: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), anaphylaxis.
    • Drug interactions: None.
    • Warning: Use with caution in patients with a history of heart failure or renal impairment.

Alternative Drugs:

  • Tranexamic Acid Mouthwash: Used for oral bleeding, cost ranges from $10-$50 for a 100mL bottle.
  • Estrogen Therapy: May be used in postmenopausal women with bleeding disorders, cost varies depending on the specific medication.
  • Antifibrinolytic Agents: Medications such as aminocaproic acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid can be used to prevent excessive bleeding, cost ranges from $10-$50 for a 1g vial.

Surgical Procedures:

  • Endoscopic Hemostasis: Used to stop bleeding from gastrointestinal ulcers or lesions. Cost: $5,000-$10,000.
  • Angiographic Embolization: Minimally invasive procedure to stop bleeding by blocking blood vessels. Cost: $10,000-$20,000.
  • Surgical Hemostasis: Open surgery to control bleeding, cost varies depending on the specific procedure.

Alternative Interventions

  • Acupuncture: May help improve blood flow and reduce pain. Cost: $60-$120 per session.
  • Chelation Therapy: Controversial treatment involving the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. Cost: $75-$150 per session.
  • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Involves breathing pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber to increase oxygen delivery to tissues. Cost: $200-$300 per session.
  • Herbal Supplements: Some herbs, such as Yunnan Baiyao or Shepherd’s Purse, may have potential benefits for reducing bleeding. Cost: Varies depending on the specific supplement.
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy: Involves injecting a concentrated solution of the patient’s own platelets to promote healing and reduce bleeding. Cost: $500-$1,500 per treatment.

Lifestyle Interventions

  • Dietary Modifications: Encourage a diet rich in vitamin K, iron, and other nutrients that support healthy blood clotting. Cost: Varies depending on dietary choices.
  • Avoidance of Trauma: Advise the patient to avoid activities that may increase the risk of injury or bleeding. Cost: None.
  • Stress Management: Help the patient develop stress-reducing techniques, as stress can contribute to bleeding disorders. Cost: Varies depending on the chosen method (e.g., yoga classes, therapy sessions).
  • Regular Exercise: Promote regular exercise to improve cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of bleeding. Cost: Varies depending on the chosen activity (e.g., gym membership, exercise equipment).

It is important to note that the cost ranges provided are approximate and may vary depending on the location and availability of the interventions. Healthcare professionals should consult local resources for accurate pricing information.

Mirari Cold Plasma Alternative Intervention

Understanding Mirari Cold Plasma

  • Safe and Non-Invasive Treatment: Mirari Cold Plasma is a safe and non-invasive treatment option for various skin conditions. It does not require incisions, minimizing the risk of scarring, bleeding, or tissue damage.
  • Efficient Extraction of Foreign Bodies: Mirari Cold Plasma facilitates the removal of foreign bodies from the skin by degrading and dissociating organic matter, allowing easier access and extraction.
  • Pain Reduction and Comfort: Mirari Cold Plasma has a local analgesic effect, providing pain relief during the treatment, making it more comfortable for the patient.
  • Reduced Risk of Infection: Mirari Cold Plasma has antimicrobial properties, effectively killing bacteria and reducing the risk of infection.
  • Accelerated Healing and Minimal Scarring: Mirari Cold Plasma stimulates wound healing and tissue regeneration, reducing healing time and minimizing the formation of scars.

Mirari Cold Plasma Prescription

Video instructions for using Mirari Cold Plasma Device – A10 Bleeding/haemorrhage NOS (ICD-10:R58)

MildModerateSevere
Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 1 (Infection)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 2 (Wound Healing)
Location: 0 (Localized)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 7 (Immunotherapy)
Location: 1 (Sacrum)
Morning: 15 minutes,
Evening: 15 minutes
Mode setting: 7 (Immunotherapy)
Location: 1 (Sacrum)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Mode setting: 7 (Immunotherapy)
Location: 1 (Sacrum)
Morning: 30 minutes,
Lunch: 30 minutes,
Evening: 30 minutes
Total
Morning: 45 minutes approx. $7.50 USD,
Evening: 45 minutes approx. $7.50 USD
Total
Morning: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Lunch: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Evening: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Total
Morning: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Lunch: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Evening: 90 minutes approx. $15 USD,
Usual treatment for 7-60 days approx. $105 USD $900 USDUsual treatment for 6-8 weeks approx. $1,890ย USD $2,520 USD
Usual treatment for 3-6 months approx. $4,050 USD $8,100 USD
Location note miraridoctor 1
  • Localized (0)
  • Sacrum (1)
  • Prostate & Uterus (2)
  • Kidney, Liver & Spleen (3)
  • Heart, Bile & Pancreas (4)
  • Lungs (5)
  • Throat, Lymphatic & Thyroid (6)
  • Neuro system & ENT (7)

Use the Mirari Cold Plasma device to treat Bleeding/ haemorrhage NOS effectively.

WARNING: MIRARI COLD PLASMA IS DESIGNED FOR THE HUMAN BODY WITHOUT ANY ARTIFICIAL OR THIRD PARTY PRODUCTS. USE OF OTHER PRODUCTS IN COMBINATION WITH MIRARI COLD PLASMA MAY CAUSE UNPREDICTABLE EFFECTS, HARM OR INJURY. PLEASE CONSULT A MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL BEFORE COMBINING ANY OTHER PRODUCTS WITH USE OF MIRARI.

Step 1: Cleanse the Skin

  • Start by cleaning the affected area of the skin with a gentle cleanser or mild soap and water. Gently pat the area dry with a clean towel.

Step 2: Prepare the Mirari Cold Plasma device

  • Ensure that the Mirari Cold Plasma device is fully charged or has fresh batteries as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Make sure the device is clean and in good working condition.
  • Switch on the Mirari device using the power button or by following the specific instructions provided with the device.
  • Some Mirari devices may have adjustable settings for intensity or treatment duration. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to select the appropriate settings based on your needs and the recommended guidelines.

Step 3: Apply the Device

  • Place the Mirari device in direct contact with the affected area of the skin. Gently glide or hold the device over the skin surface, ensuring even coverage of the area experiencing.
  • Slowly move the Mirari device in a circular motion or follow a specific pattern as indicated in the user manual. This helps ensure thorough treatment coverage.

Step 4: Monitor and Assess:

  • Keep track of your progress and evaluate the effectiveness of the Mirari device in managing your Bleeding/ haemorrhage NOS. If you have any concerns or notice any adverse reactions, consult with your health care professional.

Note

This guide is for informational purposes only and should not replace the advice of a medical professional. Always consult with your healthcare provider or a qualified medical professional for personal advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Do not solely rely on the information presented here for decisions about your health. Use of this information is at your own risk. The authors of this guide, nor any associated entities or platforms, are not responsible for any potential adverse effects or outcomes based on the content.

Mirari Cold Plasma System Disclaimer

  • Purpose: The Mirari Cold Plasma System is a Class 2 medical device designed for use by trained healthcare professionals. It is registered for use in Thailand and Vietnam. It is not intended for use outside of these locations.
  • Informational Use: The content and information provided with the device are for educational and informational purposes only. They are not a substitute for professional medical advice or care.
  • Variable Outcomes: While the device is approved for specific uses, individual outcomes can differ. We do not assert or guarantee specific medical outcomes.
  • Consultation: Prior to utilizing the device or making decisions based on its content, it is essential to consult with a Certified Mirari Tele-Therapist and your medical healthcare provider regarding specific protocols.
  • Liability: By using this device, users are acknowledging and accepting all potential risks. Neither the manufacturer nor the distributor will be held accountable for any adverse reactions, injuries, or damages stemming from its use.
  • Geographical Availability: This device has received approval for designated purposes by the Thai and Vietnam FDA. As of now, outside of Thailand and Vietnam, the Mirari Cold Plasma System is not available for purchase or use.
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