What Doctor Treats Gout: Finding the Right Specialist

March 15, 2024

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Gout is a common and painful form of arthritis caused by excess uric acid in the bloodstream forming crystals in the joints. It leads to sudden, severe joint pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness, often in the big toe but also wrists, knees, ankles, and elbows. While a general practitioner can treat run-of-the-mill gout, getting an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment may require seeing specialists like a rheumatologist or podiatrist.

Who Typically Treats Gout?

Several types of doctors may diagnose and treat gout, including:

  • Primary care doctors: General practitioners, family physicians, internists. They can diagnose straightforward gout cases, prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs for flares, and manage medication for lowering uric acid levels.
  • Rheumatologists: Specialists in joint diseases and arthritis like gout. If you have chronic, recurring gout that’s tricky to control or diagnose, a rheumatologist likely provides the expertise needed for effective treatment.
  • Podiatrists: Foot care specialists. Since the foot is the most common site of gout pain, podiatrists are seasoned in diagnosing and treating gout localized there.
  • Nephrologists: Kidney disease specialists. They treat gout occurring alongside kidney disorders or caused by kidney problems.

While a primary care provider can certainly treat typical gout cases, rheumatologists are the leading gout specialists. They have unparalleled experience tackling treatment-resistant gout and using the latest therapies.

Benefits of Seeing a Rheumatologist for Gout

Rheumatologists complete intensive training in properly diagnosing conditions causing joint pain and inflammation. They can identify gout based on medical history, lab tests, and imaging. These specialists also stay on top of the newest gout medications and treatment guidelines.

Reasons seeing a rheumatologist may help gout management include:

  • Pinpointing the exact cause of symptoms through differential diagnosis
  • Developing a tailored medication and lifestyle adjustment plan
  • Prescribing advanced uric acid-lowering treatments like Krystexxa or Uloric
  • Closely monitoring uric acid levels and disease progression
  • Referring to other specialists like dietitians, physical therapists
  • Providing guidance on managing comorbidities exacerbating gout


Diagnosing Gout: Testing and Procedures

Gout has some telltale signs, but an accurate diagnosis relies on clinical evaluation and testing to rule out other potential causes of joint pain. Doctors can use:

Medical History and Physical Exam

  • Asking about symptoms, family history, medications, other conditions
  • Checking for joint redness, warmth, swelling
  • Identifying what joints are affected

Lab Tests

  • Blood tests measuring uric acid levels
  • Counts of white blood cells and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

Joint Fluid Analysis

  • Joint aspiration using a needle to extract joint fluid
  • Checking fluid for uric acid crystals confirming gout

Imaging Tests

  • Ultrasound to visualize soft tissue and detect urate crystals
  • Dual-energy CT scan excellent for visualizing difficult joints

Advanced Testing

  • Synovial biopsy examining joint lining for definite diagnosis
  • Genetic testing to uncover rare genetic factors causing gout

What Type of Doctor Should You See for Gout?

With an array of specialists treating gout, choosing what doctor to see can be confusing. Consider these tips on finding the right physician:

See a primary care doctor first for initial evaluation and classic gout cases. Internists, general practitioners, and family doctors can diagnose straightforward gout and provide standard treatments for flares and uric acid reduction. See them for:

  • Suspected first gout cases
  • Infrequent, mild gout flares
  • Uric acid management with allopurinol/probenecid
  • Coordinating care if seeing other specialists

Visit a rheumatologist for chronic, treatment-resistant, polyarticular, or tophaceous gout requiring specialized care. As arthritis experts, rheumatologists have unparalleled experience managing tricky gout needing complex diagnosis and medications. See them for:

  • Frequent and intense gout flares
  • Intense arthritis symptoms
  • Multiple joint involvement
  • Presence of tophi deposits
  • Need for biologics or advanced therapies

Consult a podiatrist when gout pain and swelling affects the feet/ankles. Podiatrists are extremely knowledgeable about localized foot problems. They can run diagnostics tests, provide orthotics, and develop gout treatment regimens for foot-specific symptoms.

See a nephrologist if you have kidney disease or impaired kidney function that may be causing or exacerbating gout. As renal experts, they understand complex kidney-uric acid interactions and provide tailored gout management alongside kidney disease treatment.


Typical Gout Treatment Approaches

Controlling agonizing gout flares while lowering high uric acid levels long-term is key. Typical gout treatment methods from doctors include:

Treating Gout Attacks

  • NSAID medications like indomethacin, naproxen, celecoxib prescribed to alleviate swelling and pain
  • Joint aspiration for rapid relief, draining fluid with a needle
  • Oral and injected corticosteroids to quickly calm inflammation

Preventing Future Flares

  • Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol and febuxostat that block uric acid production
  • Uricosurics like probenecid and sulfinpyrazone that increase uric acid excretion
  • Pegloticase injection (Krystexxa) helps resistant, chronic gout cases
  • Losing weight if overweight
  • Limiting alcohol, sugar sweetened drinks
  • Staying well hydrated
  • Eating anti-inflammatory foods (cherries, berries)

Doctors tailor treatment plans to each patient based on:

  • Severity of gout flares and pain
  • Parts of body affected
  • Presence of tophi lumps
  • Kidney function test results
  • Other health issues present
  • Response to previous treatments

Frequently Asked Questions About Doctors Who Treat Gout

Who is the best doctor for treating gout?

For severe or chronic gout, rheumatologists are the most experienced specialists. However, internists, family medicine doctors, podiatrists, and nephrologists also treat gout effectively based on the case specifics and joints involved.

When should I see a rheumatologist versus a primary care provider for gout?

See a primary care doctor first for suspected new cases of gout or occasional mild flares treatable with common medicines. Visit a rheumatologist for recurrent, debilitating gout, multiple joint flares, arthritis symptoms not controlled by standard meds, or needing advanced treatments.

What type of doctor is able to provide injections to treat gout?

Rheumatologists frequently inject steroids into specific inflamed joints to rapidly ease gout pain and swelling. Orthopedists may also administer steroid injections. Primary doctors could provide injections in basic cases.

Can podiatrists prescribe uric acid lowering medications?

Yes, podiatrists can diagnose gout occurring in the feet and ankles and provide the full spectrum of treatments from anti-inflammatories to manage flares to xanthine oxidase inhibitors like allopurinol to lower uric acid production long term.

What specialist is most qualified to interpret gout diagnostic tests?

Rheumatologists have the most thorough training and experience accurately interpreting lab tests, imaging, and synovial fluid analyses to definitively diagnose gout versus other joint pain causes. Still, primary care doctors and podiatrists also routinely rely on gout diagnostic testing.

Key Takeaways: Doctors Who Can Treat Gout

  • Various specialists can treat gout, with rheumatologists having the deepest expertise treating challenging, chronic, recurring cases.
  • Primary care doctors handle more clear-cut gout cases and coordinate referrals to other specialists.
  • Podiatrists frequently treat gout cases localized in the feet and ankles.
  • Nephrologists manage gout occurring due to kidney disorders or kidney dysfunction.
  • The right doctor depends on factors like gout severity, joints impacted, other health conditions, and responsiveness to medications.
  • Rheumatologists excel at using cutting-edge diagnostics to definitively diagnose gout and stay on top of new therapies for recalcitrant gout.

Getting gout under control requires finding the right doctor based on your individual symptoms and needs. Collaborating with both primary care and arthritis specialists leads to better outcomes for this painful arthritis condition.

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