Understanding CRPS and Fibromyalgia

May 11, 2024

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Living with chronic pain can be an isolating and challenging experience. If you or a loved one have been diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or fibromyalgia, you may be feeling overwhelmed and uncertain about what lies ahead. The good news is that while there is no cure for these conditions, there are many effective treatments and strategies for managing symptoms and maintaining your quality of life.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of CRPS and fibromyalgia. You’ll learn about the latest research, expert recommendations for self-care and coping, and tips for working effectively with your healthcare team. Whether you’re newly diagnosed or have been living with chronic pain for years, this article aims to empower you with the knowledge and tools you need to take an active role in your care and live your best life.

Let’s start by taking a closer look at what CRPS and fibromyalgia are and how they’re diagnosed.

What is CRPS?

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, is a chronic pain condition that most often affects one limb (arm, leg, hand, or foot) usually after an injury or trauma to that limb.[1] CRPS is believed to be caused by damage to, or malfunction of, the peripheral and central nervous systems.

The key symptoms of CRPS include continuous burning or throbbing pain, swelling and stiffness in affected joints, motor disability, and changes in skin temperature, color, or texture.[2] In some cases, CRPS symptoms can spread to other parts of the body. If left untreated, CRPS can lead to significant functional impairment and disability.

Diagnosing CRPS

There is no single test that can definitively diagnose CRPS. Diagnosis is based on the affected individual’s medical history and signs and symptoms that match the diagnostic criteria. The most widely used criteria for diagnosing CRPS are the “Budapest Criteria.”[3]

As part of the diagnostic process, your doctor will likely conduct a physical exam, order x-rays and MRI scans, and may suggest a bone scan to check for bone changes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help limit the disorder’s severity and improve the chance of recovery.

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory, and mood issues.[4] Researchers believe that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by affecting the way your brain and spinal cord process painful and nonpainful signals.

Symptoms of fibromyalgia often begin after an event, such as physical trauma, surgery, infection, or significant psychological stress. In other cases, symptoms gradually accumulate over time with no single triggering event. Women are more likely to develop fibromyalgia than men.

Diagnosing Fibromyalgia

Diagnosing fibromyalgia can be challenging as there is no specific lab test to definitively diagnose the condition. In the past, diagnosis was based on the presence of tender points on the body, but this is no longer required.

Currently, a fibromyalgia diagnosis requires the following:[5]

  • Widespread pain lasting at least three months
  • Presence of other symptoms such as fatigue, waking unrefreshed, and cognitive (memory or thought) problems
  • No other underlying condition that could explain the pain and other symptoms

Similarities between CRPS and Fibromyalgia

CRPS and fibromyalgia share some similar characteristics, including:

  • Chronic, widespread pain: Both conditions involve persistent pain that can affect multiple parts of the body.
  • Sensory changes: People with CRPS or fibromyalgia may experience changes in skin sensitivity, temperature perception, and touch sensitivity.
  • Impact on quality of life: The chronic pain and other symptoms associated with these conditions can significantly impact daily activities and overall quality of life.

However, it’s important to note that CRPS and fibromyalgia are distinct conditions with different diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches.

Treatment Options for CRPS

Treatment for CRPS is most effective when started early and involves a multidisciplinary approach. Options may include:

  • Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, and opioids may be prescribed to manage pain and improve function.[6]
  • Physical therapy: Gentle, progressive exercises can help improve strength, flexibility and function of the affected limb.
  • Occupational therapy: Therapists can teach you new ways to work and perform daily tasks, helping you regain some of the function and independence you may have lost due to CRPS.
  • Psychotherapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy and other forms of counseling can help you learn coping skills and manage the emotional challenges associated with living with chronic pain.
  • Sympathetic nerve blocks: Injecting an anesthetic next to the spine can directly block pain signals.
MedicationsManage pain and improve function
Physical therapyImprove strength, flexibility, and function
Occupational therapyTeach new ways to perform tasks
PsychotherapyDevelop coping skills and manage emotional challenges
Nerve blocksDirectly block pain signals

New and experimental treatments for CRPS are also being studied, such as ketamine infusions and spinal cord stimulation. Talk to your doctor about which treatment options may be right for you.

Treatment Options for Fibromyalgia

Like CRPS, fibromyalgia treatment often requires a multi-pronged approach that includes medication, therapy and self-care strategies. Common treatments include:

  • Medications: Prescription drugs including pain relievers, antidepressants and anti-seizure drugs may be used to reduce pain and improve sleep.
  • Aerobic exercise: Regular aerobic exercise may help reduce pain and fatigue. Appropriate activities may include walking, swimming and biking.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy: CBT can help build coping skills and change negative thought patterns that may be making pain worse.
  • Stress reduction: Incorporating stress management techniques like deep breathing, meditation and yoga may help reduce stress and ease painful symptoms.
  • Improved sleep hygiene: Developing good sleep habits can help improve the quality of your sleep and reduce fatigue. Habits may include going to bed and waking up at the same time each day, limiting daytime napping and avoiding caffeine before bedtime.

Fibromyalgia symptoms can also overlap with other conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome, so it’s important to work closely with your doctor to get an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Coping with Chronic Pain

Living with the chronic pain of CRPS or fibromyalgia can be physically and emotionally draining. In addition to medical treatment, there are a number of coping strategies that may help you manage your pain and maintain your quality of life:

  1. Pace yourself: Learn to balance activity and rest to avoid overexertion and pain flare-ups.
  2. Stay active: Engage in gentle, low-impact activities like stretching or swimming as advised by your doctor.
  3. Seek support: Surround yourself with understanding friends and family, and consider joining a support group for people with chronic pain.
  4. Manage stress: Incorporate relaxation techniques into your daily routine to help control pain and improve your overall well-being.
  5. Communicate with your healthcare team: Regularly discuss your symptoms, treatment concerns and emotional state with your doctors so they can best support your care.

Many people with chronic pain conditions also find relief through complementary therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy, acupuncture, biofeedback and massage. Talk to your doctor about which integrative approaches may be right for you.

The Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment

Early diagnosis and treatment of CRPS and fibromyalgia is critical for managing symptoms, preventing complications and improving long-term outcomes. If you’re experiencing chronic, widespread pain and other associated symptoms, don’t hesitate to talk to your doctor.

Some reasons why early intervention is so important:

  • Better outcomes: Beginning treatment soon after symptom onset may help limit the severity of your condition and improve your chances of remission.
  • Prevent complications: Untreated chronic pain can lead to secondary issues like depression, anxiety, insomnia and disability. Early treatment may help prevent these complications.
  • Improved function: Getting appropriate care early on can help you maintain physical function and independence that may otherwise be lost to pain.

If you suspect you may have CRPS or fibromyalgia, be proactive about discussing your concerns with a healthcare professional who can provide an accurate diagnosis and recommend an effective treatment plan.

Working with Your Healthcare Team

Successfully managing complex conditions like CRPS and fibromyalgia requires close collaboration between patients and their healthcare providers. Some tips for working effectively with your medical team:

  • Be honest and detailed when describing your symptoms, including the severity and impact on your daily life.
  • Ask questions and voice any concerns you may have about your diagnosis or treatment options.
  • Follow your prescribed treatment plan and let your doctor know if you’re having trouble with side effects or not seeing improvement.
  • Keep track of your symptoms, medication use and pain levels in a journal or using an app to help guide treatment decisions.
  • Coordinate your care by ensuring that all members of your healthcare team are communicating and sharing information.

Remember, you are the most important member of your healthcare team. Being an engaged, empowered patient is key to achieving the best possible health outcomes. Don’t hesitate to find a specialist who understands CRPS, fibromyalgia and other complex pain conditions.

When to Seek Emergency Care

While CRPS and fibromyalgia are not life-threatening conditions, it’s important to be aware of red-flag symptoms that require emergency medical attention. Seek immediate care if you experience:

  • Severe, persistent chest pain or pressure
  • Sudden onset of severe headache, confusion, slurred speech or paralysis
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • High fever (over 101°F) with stiff neck and/or severe headache
  • Thoughts of harming yourself or others

Even if you don’t have these specific symptoms, trust your instincts. If something feels wrong or you’re concerned about new or worsening symptoms, don’t hesitate to contact your doctor or seek emergency care.

Supporting a Loved One with Chronic Pain

If you have a family member or friend living with CRPS, fibromyalgia or another chronic pain condition, your love and support can make a real difference in their coping and recovery. Some ways to show you care:

  • Educate yourself about their condition to better understand their experiences and challenges.
  • Offer to help with practical tasks like grocery shopping, housework or driving to doctor’s appointments.
  • Validate their feelings and let them know you believe their pain is real.
  • Encourage them to engage in activities they enjoy, but be understanding when they need to cancel or cut activities short due to symptoms.
  • Take care of your own physical and emotional health so you can be a strong source of support.

Remember, chronic pain conditions like CRPS and fibromyalgia can strain even the healthiest relationships. Be patient with your loved one and encourage them to seek support from a mental health professional if needed.

The Mind-Body Connection

Research shows that there is a strong link between chronic pain and mental health. Conditions like depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are common among people with CRPS and fibromyalgia.[7]

This mind-body connection works both ways. Chronic pain can take a serious toll on your mental health, and mental health issues can in turn amplify pain perception and make symptoms more difficult to manage. That’s why taking a whole-person approach that addresses both physical and emotional well-being is so important.

Some ways to support your mental health while living with chronic pain:

  • Seek counseling: Work with a therapist who understands chronic pain and can help you develop healthy coping strategies.
  • Practice relaxation techniques: Deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery and other relaxation practices can help calm your mind and ease tension in your body.
  • Challenge negative thoughts: Notice negative self-talk and actively work to reframe your thoughts in a more balanced, hopeful way.
  • Prioritize self-care: Engage in activities that bring you joy and help you feel connected to others, like spending time in nature, enjoying a hobby or volunteering for a cause you care about.

You don’t have to go it alone. In addition to professional support, consider opening up to trusted friends and family about what you’re going through or joining a chronic pain support group for social connection and practical tips from others who understand.

The Role of Diet and Nutrition

While there is no special “CRPS diet” or “fibromyalgia diet,” what you eat can play a role in your overall symptom management. Some general nutrition tips that may help:

  • Eat a balanced diet: Focus on whole, unprocessed foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats.
  • Limit inflammatory foods: Some people find that foods like gluten, dairy, refined sugars and processed meats trigger pain and other symptoms.
  • Stay hydrated: Dehydration can worsen pain and fatigue, so aim to drink plenty of water throughout the day.
  • Consider supplements: Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplements may help reduce inflammation and ease symptoms for some people. Talk to your doctor before starting any new supplement.

In addition to these general guidelines, pay attention to how different foods make you feel. You may find that certain foods seem to trigger pain flares, while others have a positive impact on your symptoms. Keeping a food and symptom journal can help you identify patterns.

Managing Pain Flares

Even with consistent treatment, people with CRPS and fibromyalgia often experience periods of increased pain and other symptoms known as flares or flare-ups. While flares can be unpredictable and debilitating, there are steps you can take to cope:

  • Rest: During a flare, try to clear your schedule and give your body the downtime it needs to recover. Pace activities and take frequent breaks.
  • Apply heat or cold: Depending on your specific symptoms, applying heat or cold packs to painful areas may provide temporary relief.
  • Use relaxation strategies: Practices like deep breathing, meditation and guided imagery can help you stay calm and mentally cope with increased pain.
  • Adjust your medications: As directed by your doctor, you may find it helpful to temporarily adjust your medication regimen during a flare. This may include increasing your dose of pain relievers or taking a rescue medication for breakthrough pain.
  • Reach out for support: Let your loved ones and healthcare team know that you’re experiencing a flare so they can offer appropriate help and emotional support.

While it’s not always possible to prevent flares entirely, identifying and avoiding personal triggers (like stress, weather changes or poor sleep) may help minimize their frequency and severity.

Staying Positive and Hopeful

Living with chronic pain can be physically and emotionally exhausting, so it’s normal to feel frustrated, sad or hopeless at times. However, maintaining a positive outlook and sense of hope is an important part of coping with CRPS, fibromyalgia and other chronic conditions.

Some strategies for cultivating positivity and hope:

  • Practice gratitude: Make a habit of noticing and appreciating the good things in your life, big and small. Consider keeping a gratitude journal.
  • Celebrate small victories: Set realistic goals and acknowledge your progress, even if it feels slow. Celebrating small successes can help you stay motivated.
  • Surround yourself with positivity: Seek out positive, supportive people and limit your exposure to negativity in relationships and media.
  • Find purpose and meaning: Nurture your sense of purpose by engaging in activities and relationships that bring fulfillment and align with your values.
  • Hold on to hope: Recognize that your pain and other symptoms are not constant and will change over time. Flares are temporary, and better days lie ahead.

If you’re struggling to stay positive, don’t hesitate to reach out to a therapist or counselor who can help you navigate the emotional impact of living with chronic pain.

Putting It All Together

CRPS and fibromyalgia are complex conditions that require a comprehensive, individualized approach to care. While there is currently no cure for either condition, there are many effective treatments and coping strategies that can help you manage symptoms and maintain your quality of life.

The most important things to remember:

  • Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes
  • A multidisciplinary treatment plan that incorporates medication, therapy and lifestyle changes tends to be most effective
  • Active coping strategies and a strong support system are key to living well with chronic pain
  • Maintaining hope is essential – better days are possible, and research into new treatments is ongoing

If you’re living with CRPS, fibromyalgia or an undiagnosed chronic pain condition, know that you’re not alone. Work closely with your healthcare team to find the treatment approach that works best for you, and don’t hesitate to reach out for support from loved ones and fellow patients. With the right care and mindset, it is possible to live a full, meaningful life with chronic pain.

Key Takeaways

  • CRPS and fibromyalgia are distinct but related conditions characterized by chronic, widespread pain and other debilitating symptoms.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for managing symptoms, preventing complications and improving outcomes.
  • Effective treatment often involves a combination of medication, therapy, lifestyle changes and complementary approaches tailored to the individual.
  • Coping with chronic pain requires active self-management strategies and a strong support network of family, friends and healthcare providers.
  • Maintaining hope, focusing on the positive and finding meaning in life can help you navigate the challenges of living with CRPS or fibromyalgia.

If you think you may have CRPS, fibromyalgia or another chronic pain condition, talk to your doctor. With the right treatment approach and mindset, it is possible to effectively manage your symptoms and lead a fulfilling life. Remember, you are not alone in this journey – support and resources are available.


  1. Harden RN, et al. Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the “Budapest Criteria”) for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.030
  2. Birklein F, Dimova V. Complex regional pain syndrome–up-to-date. PAIN Reports. 2017;2(6):e624. doi:10.1097/PR9.0000000000000624
  3. Harden RN, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome: practical diagnostic and treatment guidelines. Pain Medicine. 2013;14(2):180-229. doi:10.1111/pme.12033
  4. Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014;311(15):1547–1555. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.3266
  5. Wolfe F, et al. 2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2016;46(3):319-329. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.08.012
  6. Bharwani KD, Dirckx M, Huygen FJPM. Complex regional pain syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. BJA Education. 2017;17(8):262-268. doi:10.1093/bjaed/mkx007
  7. Sheng J, Liu S, Wang Y, Cui R, Zhang X. The Link between Depression and Chronic Pain: Neural Mechanisms in the Brain. Neural Plasticity. 2017;2017:9724371. doi:10.1155/2017/9724371
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