Understanding Chronic Left Shoulder Pain: A Comprehensive Guide

May 16, 2024

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As a medical professional, I’ve seen countless patients struggle with the discomfort and limitations of chronic left shoulder pain. This persistent condition can significantly impact your quality of life, making everyday activities like reaching, lifting, or even sleeping a challenge. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the causes, symptoms, and various treatment options available to help you manage your chronic left shoulder pain effectively.

What is Chronic Left Shoulder Pain?

Chronic left shoulder pain refers to persistent pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the left shoulder region that lasts for several weeks or months. This pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or limited range of motion[1].

The shoulder joint is one of the most complex and mobile joints in the body, consisting of the upper arm bone (humerus), shoulder blade (scapula), and collarbone (clavicle). The joint is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff, which helps to lift and rotate the arm. Due to its extensive range of motion and frequent use, the shoulder is susceptible to various injuries and conditions that can lead to chronic pain[2].

Causes of Chronic Left Shoulder Pain

There are numerous potential causes of chronic left shoulder pain, ranging from injuries to degenerative conditions. Some of the most common causes include:

Rotator Cuff Injuries

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint and allow for a wide range of motion. Rotator cuff injuries can occur due to overuse, repetitive movements, or sudden trauma, leading to pain and weakness in the shoulder. Common rotator cuff injuries include[3]:

  • Tendinitis: Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons
  • Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joint
  • Tears: Partial or complete tears in the rotator cuff tendons

Symptoms of rotator cuff injuries may include pain, especially when lifting the arm or reaching behind the back, weakness, and crackling sensations when moving the shoulder.


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the bones in the shoulder joint breaks down over time. This can lead to pain, stiffness, and a grating sensation called crepitus when moving the shoulder[4].

Risk factors for osteoarthritis include:

  • Advanced age
  • Previous shoulder injuries
  • Repetitive stress on the joint
  • Family history of arthritis

As the condition progresses, pain may worsen and range of motion may become more limited, affecting daily activities and quality of life.

Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by pain and stiffness in the shoulder joint. It typically develops gradually, with pain and limited range of motion worsening over time[5].

Frozen shoulder occurs in three stages:

  1. Freezing stage: Pain develops and range of motion begins to decrease
  2. Frozen stage: Pain may lessen, but stiffness and limited mobility persist
  3. Thawing stage: Range of motion slowly improves

The exact cause of frozen shoulder is not always clear, but it can be associated with diabetes, thyroid disorders, and prolonged immobilization of the shoulder joint.

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability occurs when the structures that stabilize the shoulder joint, such as the ligaments and labrum, become stretched or torn. This can lead to the upper arm bone slipping partially or completely out of the socket (subluxation or dislocation)[6].

Symptoms of shoulder instability may include:

  • Pain, especially with overhead activities
  • A feeling of the shoulder “giving out” or “popping out of place”
  • Numbness or tingling in the arm
  • Visible deformity of the shoulder

Shoulder instability can result from traumatic injuries, repetitive stress, or inherent joint laxity. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent recurrent instability and long-term damage to the joint.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy is a condition in which a nerve in the neck becomes compressed or irritated, causing pain, numbness, or weakness that radiates down the arm and into the shoulder. This can occur due to herniated discs, bone spurs, or degenerative changes in the cervical spine[7].

Symptoms of cervical radiculopathy may include:

  • Sharp or burning pain in the neck, shoulder, and arm
  • Numbness or tingling sensations in the arm or fingers
  • Weakness in the affected arm or hand
  • Worsening pain with certain neck movements

Treatment for cervical radiculopathy often involves a combination of pain management, physical therapy, and sometimes surgery to relieve pressure on the affected nerve.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a group of disorders that occur when blood vessels or nerves in the space between the collarbone and first rib (thoracic outlet) become compressed. This can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the shoulder, arm, and hand[8].

There are three types of TOS:

  1. Neurogenic TOS: Compression of the brachial plexus nerves
  2. Venous TOS: Compression of the subclavian vein
  3. Arterial TOS: Compression of the subclavian artery

Symptoms of TOS may include:

  • Pain in the neck, shoulder, and arm
  • Numbness or tingling in the arm or fingers
  • Weakness in the affected arm or hand
  • Coldness or swelling in the arm or hand

Treatment for TOS depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may involve physical therapy, medications, or surgery to relieve the compression.

Other Causes

In addition to the conditions mentioned above, other potential causes of chronic left shoulder pain include:

  • Labral tears: Injuries to the ring of cartilage (labrum) that surrounds the shoulder socket
  • Biceps tendinitis: Inflammation of the biceps tendon, which connects the biceps muscle to the shoulder
  • Acromioclavicular (AC) joint arthritis: Degeneration of the joint between the collarbone and shoulder blade
  • Referred pain: Pain originating from other areas, such as the neck, heart, or gallbladder, that is felt in the shoulder

Accurate diagnosis by a healthcare professional is essential to determine the underlying cause of your chronic left shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Symptoms of Chronic Left Shoulder Pain

The symptoms of chronic left shoulder pain can vary depending on the underlying cause but often include:

Persistent Pain

One of the hallmark symptoms of chronic left shoulder pain is persistent discomfort that lasts for several weeks or months. The pain may be described as[1]:

  • Dull and aching
  • Sharp or stabbing
  • Burning or throbbing
  • Radiating down the arm or up the neck

The pain may be constant or intermittent and can range from mild to severe, interfering with daily activities and quality of life.

Stiffness and Limited Range of Motion

Chronic left shoulder pain is often accompanied by stiffness and limited range of motion in the affected joint. You may experience difficulty with:

  • Raising your arm overhead
  • Reaching behind your back
  • Rotating your arm inward or outward

This loss of mobility can make everyday tasks, such as dressing, grooming, or reaching for objects, more challenging and frustrating.


Weakness in the left arm or shoulder is another common symptom associated with chronic shoulder pain. This weakness may result from:

  • Injury or inflammation of the rotator cuff muscles
  • Nerve compression or damage
  • Disuse of the arm due to pain or immobility

You may find it difficult to lift objects, perform overhead activities, or maintain arm positions for extended periods.

Instability or Catching Sensations

In some cases, chronic left shoulder pain may be accompanied by feelings of instability or catching sensations in the joint. This may occur due to:

  • Shoulder dislocation or subluxation
  • Labral tears or other structural damage
  • Loose or stretched ligaments

Instability can cause the shoulder to feel as though it is “giving way” or “popping out of place,” leading to pain, apprehension, and further damage to the joint.

Nighttime Pain

Many people with chronic left shoulder pain report increased discomfort at night, especially when lying on the affected side. This nighttime pain can disrupt sleep and lead to fatigue and irritability during the day.

Strategies to alleviate nighttime shoulder pain include:

  • Using a supportive pillow to maintain proper alignment
  • Sleeping on your back or unaffected side
  • Taking pain medication before bed, as directed by your doctor

If nighttime pain persists despite these measures, it’s essential to consult your healthcare provider for further evaluation and treatment options.

Diagnosing Chronic Left Shoulder Pain

An accurate diagnosis is crucial for developing an effective treatment plan for chronic left shoulder pain. Your healthcare provider will typically begin with a thorough medical history and physical examination.

Medical History

During the medical history, your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms, including:

  • When the pain began and how long it has persisted
  • The nature and intensity of the pain
  • Any activities that worsen or alleviate the pain
  • Any previous shoulder injuries or surgeries
  • Your occupation and recreational activities
  • Other medical conditions or medications

This information can help your provider identify potential causes and risk factors for your chronic left shoulder pain.

Physical Examination

The physical examination will focus on assessing your left shoulder and upper extremity. Your healthcare provider will:

  • Observe your posture and shoulder alignment
  • Palpate the shoulder and surrounding areas for tenderness or muscle tightness
  • Evaluate your range of motion by asking you to move your arm in various directions
  • Assess your shoulder strength and stability
  • Perform specific tests to identify signs of impingement, instability, or nerve compression

Based on the findings of the medical history and physical examination, your healthcare provider may recommend additional tests or imaging studies.

Imaging Studies

Imaging studies can provide detailed visualizations of the structures within the shoulder joint and help identify any abnormalities or damage. Common imaging studies for evaluating chronic left shoulder pain include:

  • X-rays: To assess the bones and joints for signs of arthritis, fractures, or other abnormalities
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): To visualize soft tissues, such as the rotator cuff tendons, labrum, and muscles, and identify tears, inflammation, or degenerative changes
  • Ultrasound: To evaluate the rotator cuff tendons and other soft tissues in real-time, assessing for tears, inflammation, or impingement
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: To provide detailed cross-sectional images of the shoulder joint, particularly useful for assessing complex fractures or bone abnormalities

Your healthcare provider will determine the most appropriate imaging studies based on your individual symptoms and physical examination findings.

Other Diagnostic Tests

In some cases, additional diagnostic tests may be necessary to further evaluate your chronic left shoulder pain or rule out other potential causes:

  • Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS): To assess the function of the nerves and muscles in the shoulder and arm, helping to identify nerve compression or muscle disorders
  • Blood Tests: To screen for inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, or other systemic diseases that may contribute to shoulder pain
  • Joint Aspiration: In cases of suspected infection or gout, a small sample of joint fluid may be removed and analyzed for diagnostic purposes

By combining the information from your medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and other diagnostic tests, your healthcare provider can develop a comprehensive understanding of your chronic left shoulder pain and create a tailored treatment plan.

Treatment Options for Chronic Left Shoulder Pain

Treatment for chronic left shoulder pain typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining conservative measures, medications, and sometimes surgical interventions. The specific treatment plan will depend on the underlying cause of your pain and the severity of your symptoms.

Conservative Measures

Conservative treatment options aim to alleviate pain, improve range of motion, and strengthen the muscles that support the shoulder joint. These measures include:

Rest and Activity Modification

In the initial stages of treatment, your healthcare provider may recommend rest and activity modification to allow the shoulder to heal and prevent further damage. This may involve:

  • Avoiding or modifying activities that exacerbate your pain
  • Using a sling to immobilize the shoulder temporarily
  • Practicing proper posture and body mechanics

Gradual return to activities, as tolerated, is essential to maintain shoulder mobility and prevent stiffness.

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a cornerstone of treatment for chronic left shoulder pain. A physical therapist will work with you to develop a customized rehabilitation program that may include:

  • Range of motion exercises to improve flexibility and reduce stiffness
  • Strengthening exercises targeting the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers
  • Manual therapy techniques, such as joint mobilization and soft tissue massage
  • Postural education and ergonomic modifications
  • Modalities, such as heat, ice, or electrical stimulation, to manage pain and inflammation

Regular participation in physical therapy can help you regain shoulder function, alleviate pain, and prevent future injuries.

Home Exercise Program

In addition to formal physical therapy sessions, your healthcare provider or physical therapist may prescribe a home exercise program (HEP) for you to perform regularly. This program may include:

  • Stretching exercises for the chest, shoulders, and upper back
  • Strengthening exercises using resistance bands or light weights
  • Postural exercises and body mechanics training

Consistency with your HEP is crucial for maintaining the gains made in physical therapy and preventing the recurrence of shoulder pain.


Medications can play a role in managing pain and inflammation associated with chronic left shoulder pain. Your healthcare provider may recommend:

Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help reduce pain and inflammation in the shoulder joint. Acetaminophen can also be effective for managing pain, although it does not have anti-inflammatory properties.

Always follow the recommended dosage instructions and consult your healthcare provider before taking any medications, especially if you have pre-existing medical conditions or are taking other medications.

Prescription Medications

In some cases, your healthcare provider may prescribe stronger pain medications or muscle relaxants to help manage your chronic left shoulder pain. These may include:

  • Opioids: For severe pain that does not respond to other medications
  • Muscle relaxants: To alleviate muscle spasms and tightness in the shoulder and surrounding areas
  • Oral corticosteroids: To reduce inflammation in cases of severe shoulder pain or inflammatory conditions

Your healthcare provider will carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of prescription medications and monitor you closely for any adverse effects.

Topical Medications

Topical medications, such as creams, gels, or patches, can be applied directly to the skin over the affected shoulder to provide localized pain relief. These products may contain:

  • NSAIDs, such as diclofenac or ketoprofen
  • Capsaicin, a compound derived from chili peppers that can help desensitize pain receptors
  • Lidocaine, a numbing agent that can temporarily relieve pain

Topical medications can be a helpful adjunct to other treatment options and may be particularly useful for individuals who cannot tolerate oral medications.


Injections can deliver medication directly to the affected area, providing targeted pain relief and reducing inflammation. Common injections for chronic left shoulder pain include:

Corticosteroid Injections

Corticosteroid injections, also known as cortisone shots, involve injecting a potent anti-inflammatory medication into the shoulder joint or surrounding soft tissues. These injections can:

  • Reduce inflammation and pain
  • Improve range of motion
  • Facilitate participation in physical therapy

The effects of corticosteroid injections can last for several weeks to months, providing a window of opportunity to engage in rehabilitation and strengthen the shoulder muscles.

Hyaluronic Acid Injections

Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring substance that lubricates and cushions the joints. In some cases of shoulder osteoarthritis, your healthcare provider may recommend hyaluronic acid injections to:

  • Improve joint lubrication
  • Reduce pain and stiffness
  • Slow the progression of arthritis

These injections are typically administered in a series over several weeks and may provide relief for several months.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections

PRP injections involve drawing a small sample of your own blood, processing it to concentrate the platelets and growth factors, and then injecting this preparation into the affected shoulder. PRP injections may:

Promote healing of damaged tissues

  • Reduce inflammation and pain
  • Improve function and range of motion

While more research is needed to fully understand the efficacy of PRP injections for chronic left shoulder pain, some studies have shown promising results, particularly for rotator cuff injuries and tendinopathies[9].

Surgical Interventions

In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to address the underlying cause of chronic left shoulder pain and restore function. The specific surgical procedure will depend on the diagnosis and severity of the condition. Common surgical options include:

Arthroscopic Surgery

Arthroscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small camera (arthroscope) and surgical instruments through tiny incisions in the shoulder. This technique can be used to:

  • Repair torn rotator cuff tendons
  • Remove bone spurs or inflamed tissue
  • Treat labral tears or shoulder instability
  • Release tight or scarred tissues in cases of frozen shoulder

Arthroscopic surgery often results in less pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery[10].

Open Surgery

In some cases, open surgery may be necessary to address more complex or severe shoulder conditions. Examples of open surgical procedures include:

  • Total shoulder replacement: Replacing the damaged shoulder joint with a prosthetic implant
  • Reverse shoulder replacement: A specialized implant designed for individuals with severe rotator cuff tears and arthritis
  • Tendon transfers: Redirecting healthy tendons to compensate for damaged or torn tendons
  • Bone spur removal: Removing large bone spurs that cause impingement or limit range of motion

Open surgery typically involves a larger incision and a longer recovery period compared to arthroscopic procedures.

Post-Surgical Rehabilitation

Regardless of the type of surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation is crucial for optimizing outcomes and regaining shoulder function. This process typically involves:

  • Immobilization: Wearing a sling or brace to protect the surgical site and allow for initial healing
  • Physical therapy: Gradual progression of range of motion, strengthening, and functional exercises
  • Pain management: Using medications, modalities, and other techniques to control post-surgical pain and inflammation

Your healthcare provider and physical therapist will work closely with you to develop a personalized rehabilitation plan and guide you through the recovery process.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Therapies

In addition to conventional medical treatments, some individuals with chronic left shoulder pain may find relief through CAM therapies. While the scientific evidence for these therapies varies, some people report significant benefits. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting any CAM therapy to ensure it is safe and appropriate for your condition.


Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine technique that involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to alleviate pain and promote healing. For chronic left shoulder pain, acupuncture may help:

  • Reduce pain and inflammation
  • Improve range of motion and function
  • Promote relaxation and overall well-being

Some studies have suggested that acupuncture may be effective for managing shoulder pain, particularly when combined with conventional treatments like physical therapy[11].

Massage Therapy

Massage therapy involves the manual manipulation of soft tissues to reduce pain, relieve muscle tension, and improve circulation. For individuals with chronic left shoulder pain, massage techniques may include:

  • Swedish massage: Long, flowing strokes to promote relaxation and reduce muscle tension
  • Deep tissue massage: Targeted pressure to release knots and adhesions in the muscles and connective tissues
  • Trigger point therapy: Focused pressure on specific areas of tenderness to alleviate pain and improve range of motion

Regular massage sessions may help manage chronic left shoulder pain, particularly when combined with stretching and strengthening exercises.

Yoga and Tai Chi

Gentle movement practices, such as yoga and tai chi, can help improve flexibility, strength, and body awareness, which may be beneficial for individuals with chronic left shoulder pain. These practices typically involve:

  • Slow, controlled movements
  • Breathing exercises
  • Meditation or relaxation techniques

When practiced under the guidance of a qualified instructor, yoga and tai chi can help alleviate shoulder pain, improve range of motion, and reduce stress and anxiety associated with chronic pain[12].

Lifestyle Modifications for Managing Chronic Left Shoulder Pain

In addition to medical treatments and therapies, making certain lifestyle modifications can help you manage your chronic left shoulder pain and prevent further injury. Some key strategies include:

Maintaining Good Posture

Poor posture can contribute to shoulder pain by placing excessive strain on the muscles and joints. To maintain good posture:

  • Keep your shoulders back and down, with your ears aligned over your shoulders
  • Avoid slouching or hunching forward, especially when sitting at a desk or using electronic devices
  • Use ergonomic chairs and workstations that support proper alignment

Regularly checking and correcting your posture throughout the day can help reduce stress on your shoulders and alleviate pain.

Adjusting Sleep Positions

Sleeping in certain positions can exacerbate shoulder pain and stiffness. To minimize discomfort and promote healing:

  • Avoid sleeping on your affected shoulder
  • Use a supportive pillow that maintains the natural alignment of your neck and shoulders
  • Consider using a body pillow or placing a pillow under your upper arm to support the shoulder joint

Experimenting with different sleep positions and pillows can help you find the most comfortable and supportive arrangement for your shoulder.

Modifying Activities and Workspaces

Repetitive or overhead activities can strain the shoulder and worsen chronic pain. To reduce the risk of further injury:

  • Avoid or modify activities that exacerbate your pain, such as reaching overhead or lifting heavy objects
  • Use assistive devices, such as reachers or grabbers, to minimize shoulder strain
  • Adjust your workspace to promote proper ergonomics, such as using a standing desk or adjusting the height of your computer monitor

By modifying your activities and environment, you can help minimize stress on your shoulder and prevent the worsening of your chronic pain.

Staying Active and Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight can help manage chronic left shoulder pain by:

  • Improving flexibility and range of motion
  • Strengthening the muscles that support the shoulder joint
  • Reducing overall inflammation in the body

Engage in low-impact exercises that don’t aggravate your shoulder pain, such as:

  • Walking
  • Swimming or water aerobics
  • Stationary cycling
  • Elliptical machines

Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, along with 2-3 days of strength training exercises[13].

Managing Stress and Practicing Relaxation Techniques

Chronic pain can be stressful, and stress can exacerbate pain, creating a vicious cycle. To break this cycle and better manage your chronic left shoulder pain:

  • Practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or guided imagery
  • Engage in stress-reducing activities, like meditation, yoga, or tai chi
  • Prioritize self-care activities that bring you joy and relaxation
  • Seek support from friends, family, or a mental health professional

By managing stress and incorporating relaxation techniques into your daily routine, you can help reduce the emotional and physical impact of chronic left shoulder pain.

When to Seek Medical Attention

While many cases of chronic left shoulder pain can be managed with conservative treatments and lifestyle modifications, there are certain situations in which it is essential to seek prompt medical attention. Contact your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Sudden, severe shoulder pain accompanied by chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness, as this may indicate a heart attack or other serious condition
  • Shoulder pain that occurs after a traumatic injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the shoulder
  • Visible deformity, swelling, or redness in the shoulder joint
  • Inability to move the arm or shoulder due to pain or weakness
  • Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arm or hand that does not improve with rest
  • Persistent shoulder pain that does not respond to conservative treatments or worsens over time

Your healthcare provider can perform a thorough evaluation, identify any underlying conditions contributing to your shoulder pain, and recommend the most appropriate treatment plan for your individual needs.


Chronic left shoulder pain is a complex and potentially debilitating condition that can significantly impact your daily life. By understanding the various causes, symptoms, and treatment options available, you can work with your healthcare provider to develop a comprehensive management plan tailored to your specific needs and goals.

A multidisciplinary approach to treating chronic left shoulder pain often includes a combination of conservative measures, such as rest, physical therapy, and medications, as well as more targeted interventions like injections or surgery when necessary. Incorporating lifestyle modifications, such as maintaining good posture, adjusting sleep positions, and staying active, can further support your recovery and help prevent future injuries.

Remember, everyone’s experience with chronic left shoulder pain is unique, and what works for one person may not work for another. Be patient with yourself, stay proactive in your care, and don’t hesitate to seek support from your healthcare team, friends, and family.

If you found this article helpful, we encourage you to explore our other resources on chronic pain management:

By staying informed and actively engaged in your treatment, you can take control of your chronic left shoulder pain and work towards a better quality of life.

Key Takeaways

  1. Chronic left shoulder pain refers to persistent pain, stiffness, or discomfort in the left shoulder region that lasts for several weeks or months, significantly impacting daily activities and quality of life.
  2. Common causes of chronic left shoulder pain include rotator cuff injuries, osteoarthritis, frozen shoulder, shoulder instability, cervical radiculopathy, thoracic outlet syndrome, and other conditions affecting the bones, joints, muscles, or nerves of the shoulder.
  3. Symptoms of chronic left shoulder pain may include persistent pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, weakness, instability, and nighttime discomfort.
  4. Diagnosing chronic left shoulder pain involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and possibly imaging studies or other diagnostic tests to identify the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
  5. Treatment options for chronic left shoulder pain often include a combination of conservative measures (rest, physical therapy, medications), injections (corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, PRP), and surgical interventions (arthroscopic or open surgery) when necessary.
  6. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, yoga, and tai chi, may provide additional relief for some individuals with chronic left shoulder pain when used in conjunction with conventional treatments.
  7. Lifestyle modifications, including maintaining good posture, adjusting sleep positions, modifying activities and workspaces, staying active, and managing stress, can help manage chronic left shoulder pain and prevent further injury.
  8. Seeking prompt medical attention is crucial if you experience sudden, severe shoulder pain accompanied by other concerning symptoms, or if your shoulder pain does not respond to conservative treatments or worsens over time.

By incorporating these key takeaways into your daily life and working closely with your healthcare team, you can effectively manage your chronic left shoulder pain and improve your overall well-being. Remember, small changes can make a big difference in reducing your pain and enhancing your quality of life.


  1. Linaker, C. H., & Walker-Bone, K. (2015). Shoulder disorders and occupation. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 29(3), 405-42https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2015.04.001
  2. Mitchell, C., Adebajo, A., Hay, E., & Carr, A. (2005). Shoulder pain: diagnosis and management in primary care. BMJ, 331(7525), 1124-1128. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7525.1124
  3. Luime, J. J., Koes, B. W., Hendriksen, I. J., Burdorf, A., Verhagen, A. P., Miedema, H. S., & Verhaar, J. A. (2004). Prevalence and incidence of shoulder pain in the general population; a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 33(2), 73-8https://doi.org/10.1080/03009740310004667
  4. Burbank, K. M., Stevenson, J. H., Czarnecki, G. R., & Dorfman, J. (2008). Chronic shoulder pain: part I. Evaluation and diagnosis. American Family Physician, 77(4), 453-460. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0215/p453.html
  5. Robinson, C. M., Seah, K. T., Chee, Y. H., Hindle, P., & Murray, I. R. (2012). Frozen shoulder. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British volume, 94(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.94B1.27093
  6. Gombera, M. M., & Sekiya, J. K. (2014). Rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral instability: a systematic review. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 472(8), 2448-2456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-013-3290-2
  7. Iyer, S., & Kim, H. J. (2016). Cervical radiculopathy. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 9(3), 272-280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12178-016-9349-4
  8. Kuhn, J. E., Lebus V, G. F., & Bible, J. E. (2015). Thoracic outlet syndrome. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 23(4), 222-23https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-13-00215
  9. Hurley, E. T., Lim Fat, D., Moran, C. J., & Mullett, H. (2019). The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(3), 753-76https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517751397
  10. Coghlan, J. A., Buchbinder, R., Green, S., Johnston, R. V., & Bell, S. N. (2008). Surgery for rotator cuff disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1), CD005619. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005619.pub2
  11. Lathia, A. T., Jung, S. M., & Chen, L. X. (2009). Efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic shoulder pain. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(6), 613-618. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0272
  12. Cheung, C., Wyman, J. F., Resnick, B., & Savik, K. (2014). Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 160. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-160
  13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2019-09/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_2nd_edition.pdf
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